As the nuclei penetrate into the quark matter core a conversion energy between 1 to 100 MeV is released per accreted nucleon. Matter at the Highest Densities 1461 A. Color-flavor locked CFL quark matter 1461 1. The most symmetric and most attractive pairs is the color-avor lock phase. The hydrodynamics of the CFL phase should be described by the relativistic version of Landau ’s two-fluid model. The search for the true ground state of the dense matter remains open since Bodmer, Terazawa and others raised the possibility of stable quark matter, boosted by Witten’s strange matter hypothesis in 1984. IIS1 13 (1969). CFL quark matter has many special properties, including the fact that chiral symmetry is broken by a new mechanism: the quark pairs themselves, instead of the more conventional chiral condensate. So CFL quark matter is a superfluid. This stability scenario is even more favorable if quarks are in a color flavor locked (CFL) state, in which quarks form pairs resembling the superconductivity Cooper pairs. F v!!! Examples of Lifshitz or quantum ordering are the appearance of muons at sufficiently high density, or the transition from unpaired quark matter … locked (CFL) quark matter center and a nuclear fluid exterior. There may be kaon condensation. The main consequence of color superconductivity is the ap-pearance of a nonzero energy gap in the one-particle energy, εi = (Ei −µ)2 +∆2, with ∆ being the CFL superconducting gap. Quark matter phase diagram pQCD PT hadrons gas Compact Stars T c T µ I LQCD m ⇡ CFL quark-gluon plasma colour superconductors h ¯ i6=0 h ¯ i6=0 h C 5 i h ¯ 2 5 i = B sin ↵ h ¯ i = B cos ↵ pion condensed phase µ B SOME METHODS NJL-like Ordinary quark matter contains only up and ... of stars, quark matter may be in a non-CFL phase, a state that is not yet well understood. Why CFL is favored 1463 One of these fields carries an admixture of the ordinary abelian magnetic field and therefore flux tubes may form if CFL matter is exposed to a magnetic field, possibly in the interior of neutron stars or in quark … Phases of quark matter, again liq T m gas QGP CFL nuclear /supercond superfluid compact star non-CFL heavy ion collider hadronic NJL model, uniform phases only B=3 (MeV) T (MeV) 350 400 450 500 550 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 g2SC NQ NQ 2SC uSC guSC ! unpaired quark matter, if pressure is low enough. The superconducting color phase of quark matter may have interesting consequences in astrophysics. To verify its existence, we need to make falsifiable predictions about the differ-ences between typical neutron stars and CFL hybrid neutron stars and verify them F. Overview of the quark matter phase diagram 1461 II. Hence, one should conclude that the CFL state is the true ground state of strange quark matter in the CDM model in that regime. The bulk viscosities of two color-superconducting phases, the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase and the 2SC phase, are computed and compared to the result for unpaired quark matter. The main observation in this work was that a finite strange-quark mass shifts the Fermi momentum of the strange quark with respect to the Fermi momentum of the light quarks. If such a state exists in NS, then it will be worth to consider the mutual friction. Constraints from observations. Application to color-flavor locked quark matter In CFL phase, baryon number symmetry is broken. Eventually, at an unknown critical value of μ, there is a transition to quark matter. If the central densities of compact stars are indeed sufficient to support quark matter, it is likely that it will be found in the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. , , the conversion of nuclear matter to CFL strange quark matter, powered by continuous accretion in a LMXB may provide a mechanism for the deep crustal heating. Browse our catalogue of tasks and access state-of-the-art solutions. In this case the CFL pairing gap played a significant role: without CFL pairing, there was a much smaller region of parameter space where quark matter is more stable than nuclear matter. approximate symmetries, the CFL quark matter phase spontaneously breaks chiral symmetry, but the two-flavor Cooper paired (‘2SC’) phase does not [6]. If the mismatch between the Fermi momenta is bigger than the gap then pairing between strange and Superfluidity 1462 3. This means that millisecond pulsars, with frequencies up to 640 Hz, cannot be CFL quark-matter stars, making it questionable whether any compact stars are made entirely of CFL quark matter. quark matter = color-liq T m gas QGP CFL nuclear /supercond superfluid compact star non-CFL heavy ion collider hadronic M. Alford, K. Rajagopal, T. Sch afer, A. Schmitt, arXiv:0709.4635 (RMP review) A. Schmitt, arXiv:1001.3294 (Lecture notes) Color-flavor locked (CFL) quark matter expels color-magnetic fields due to the Meissner effect. quark matter becomes a color superconductor[6], [7], [8]. New phases in CFL quark matter Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. So quark matter in a compact star might be CFL, or something else: gapless CFL; kaon-condensed CFL, 2SC, 1SC, crystalline,::: Cooper pairing vs. the strange quark mass Unpaired blue s p red green F u d Ms 2 4m 2SCpairing blue s p red green F u d CFLpairing blue p red green F CFL: Color-avor-locked phase, favored at the highest densities. It is now known that the CFL phase exhibits chiral symmetry breaking, and other quark matter phases may also break chiral symmetry, so it is not clear whether this is really a chiral transition line. At ultra-high densities we expect to find the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of color-superconducting quark matter. EMBED. Gauge symmetry breaking and electromagnetism 1462 4. 5. Conjectured QCD phase diagram superconducting quark matter = color− liq T µ gas QGP CFL nuclear superfluid compact star hadronic non−CFL heavy ion collider heavy ion collisions: chiral critical point and first-order line However, at sufficiently high densities the transition does not occur. This phase can be form by quarks with all three colors and three avors of zero-momentum spinless Cooper pairs. At intermediate densities we expect some other phases (labelled "non-CFL quark liquid" in the figure) whose nature is presently unknown. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract. The strange quark matter (SQM) hypothesis states that it is possible that the ground state of cold baryonic matter is a plasma composed roughly of equal numbers of up, down and strange quarks. I suspect that this is referencing the paper Wormhole geometries supported by quark matter at ultra-high densities. Nuovo Cim. In contrast, the CFL phase of quark matter is thermally inert: all the quarks are gapped, so there is a low heat capacity ~T 3 arising from the superfluid phonons, and a low neutrino emissivity ~T 15 . hq i q BCS in quark matter: Ivanenko and Kurdgelaidze, Lett. This confirms previous calculations made with more phenomenological models [14] . F N +!! F M =m v d!! He found that for a compact star made entirely of quark matter in the CFL phase, even a quark gap as small as Δ = 1 MeV reduces (T) dramatically to for temperatures below 10 9 K (100 keV). Tip: you can also follow us on Twitter 3.2. Get the latest machine learning methods with code. v L dt dynamical behavior of CFL quark matter is characterized by all the peculiarities of superfluidity. Abstract. the ground state of quark matter is the superconducting Color-Flavor-Locked (CFL) phase, and that this phase of matter rather than nuclear matter may be the ground state of hadronic matter (Alford et al.2007).The existence ofthe CFL phase canenhance the possibility ofthe Low-energy excitations 1463 5. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password There should be a superfluid component, desc ribing the coherent motion of the strange-quark mass on CFL quark matter was carried out in [11,12]. avor locked: CFL phase For the ultra-high-density quark matter, the up, down, and strange quark behave similar. Following the suggestion of Refs. The two main types of quark matter expected to exist within quark stars are ordinary and strange quark matter. CFL gCFL CFL-K 0 p2SC! Highest densities: color-flavor-locked (CFL) quark pairing, in which all three flavors participate symmetrically. At slightly lower densities, corresponding to higher layers closer to the surface of the compact star, the quark matter will behave as a non-CFL quark liquid, a phase that is even more mysterious than CFL and might include color conductivity and/or several additional yet undiscovered phases. Color-flavor locking and chiral symmetry breaking 1461 2. CFL quark matter is a theoretical state of matter which may exist at the center of highly dense neutron stars. U(1) B!! The search for the true ground state of the dense matter remains open since Bodmer, Terazawa and others raised the possibility of stable quark matter, boosted by Witten’s strange matter hypothesis in 1984. Phase can be form by quarks with all three colors and three avors of zero-momentum spinless pairs! Characterized by all the peculiarities of superfluidity most symmetric and most attractive pairs is color-avor! 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