Civil society in Mindanao is playing a highly commendable and constructive role on its part to not let the ongoing peace process slip into disarray. Many provinces of Mindanao in which NP has plans of working have been declared to have had “failed elections”. Although ceasefires were arranged in both these conflict theatres, small skirmishes continue to generate tension and fuel the agony of the communities. The fighting in Marawi – the capital of Lanao del Sur province in Mindanao – started in May 2017. Herbert, S. (2019). Civil society maintained continuous presence and advocated for early cessation of hostilities. Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Ethno-Religious War or Economic Conflict? Poverty and inequality in the Philippines remains a challenge. Ceasefire agreements and peace negotiations with the MILF broke down several times. Gender and countering violent extremism (CVE) in the Kenya Mozambique region, Lessons for coherent and integrated conflict analysis from multilateral actors, Institutions, approaches and lessons for coherent and integrated conflict analysis. A Reflection on Karl Marx’s Conflict Theory and the Philippine Governance One of the most prominent sociologist [and philosopher] in his time until now is Karl Marx. They are also frequently subjected to challenge by outbreak of small-to-medium scale hostilities between the main parties to the conflict and their proxies. Nationality theory – the nationality or citizenship determines the personal laws of the individual. MNLF leaders joined then the government structures in Mindanao mainly in the ARMM. The Moro conflict is a multifaceted, highly complex matter, emanating from centuries of profound societal fragmentation and divisions. It was feared that the confrontation between the forces of both sides might led to a new outbreak of violence not only in Basilan but which may also affect the cease-fire on the mainlands of Mindanao. The Philippine National Police reported that 5,526 suspects were killed in police operations from July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2019. Elections dominated the political space for the last few months. The Culture of Conflict in the Philippines. Here, LGUs are less capable of projecting themselves as independent forces with their own vested interests. The NPA forces are also known as "Huks," in connection with the Hukbalahap war of the 1940s and 1950s. The high militarization of the whole area caused much fear among the residents, local governmental officials, the ceasefire mechanism structure and civil society organizations. Thousands of civilians were displaced in this mini-war and many are yet to return to their homes. The youth are particularly vulnerable to radicalisation, especially due to the rapid spread of social media. The ray of hope is a well organised and networked civil society that aims to end the cycle of violence and believes that proactive action can build peace with justice. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire makes Philippines extremely vulnerable to natural disasters, especially earthquakes, cyclones, and volcanic hazards. Overall, the elections fortified the power of provincial feudal elites and raised the possibilities of emergence of local ‘third parties’ to the peace processes. This draws on the reality that the Southwestern Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago are the poorest provinces in the Philippines, and one of Southeast Asia’s least developed regions. The political rise of traditional feudal chieftains (Datus) in the last years in some provinces of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) has intermeshed clan conflicts (Rido) with the larger peace process between the GRP, the MILF and the MNLF. Outputs supported by FCDO are © FCDO Crown Copyright 2020; outputs supported by the Australian Government are Key grievances are the perception that the state military campaigns have been heavy-handed; protracted internal displacement following the battles and slow state reconstruction processes; human rights abuses by the military; and the sense of betrayal by the government during peace negotiations. It was the first ever NAP adopted in Asia. Title: The Culture of Conflict in Philippines. ), Christian vigilante organisations and criminal gangs (‘Kidnap for Ransom Groups’) and official and semi-official government agencies (human rights organisations have counted at least 50 extrajudicial killings of drug offenders in the city of Davao). Ca. Conflict theorists do not believe that public schools reduce social inequality. Nonviolent Peaceforce in action: an overview. But violence in the South has been perpetrated by many more groups than MNLF and MILF, including other armed non-state actors (Pentagon in Central Mindanao, Abu Sayyaf, the South-East Asian Jemaah Islamiah etc. indigenous Muslims by Christian migrant settlers is also a core grievance. A referendum asked the municipalities and provinces with significant Muslim populations in Mindanao if they wished to join an “Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao” (ARMM) which had originally already been created in 1990. 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